Appendix 6: Glossary

Adjunct Materials, other than malt, which contribute to extract.
Attemperation Applying cooling to control the temperature of the fermentation and/or initiate sedimentation of yeast.
Attenuation limit Gravity to which wort is fermentable.
Attenuation target Final gravity required after primary fermentation.
Auxiliary finings Preparations containing gums, alginates or silicates which are used to assist fining.
Barming Formation of a yeast head in the fermenter.
Barm ale Drainings or pressings from the yeast after its removal from the fermentation vessel.
Bottoms Residue in fermentation or storage vessels or in casks.
Chelator (Chelating agent) Compound which binds available metal ions.
Cleansing time Time required to sediment yeast when cooling is applied at the end of primary fermentation.
Cold break Precipitate formed when wort is cooled.
Copper finings Clarifying agents added to the copper.
Copper sugars Crystalline sugars which contribute to extract and are added to the copper during wort boiling.
Copper syrups Liquid adjuncts prepared by hydrolysis of suitable starch. They contribute to extract and are added to the copper during wort boiling.
Cropping Separation of yeast from fermenting wort.
Diastatic power A measure of the activity of the enzymes present in malt which are involved in the breakdown of starch.
Displaced beer Overflow from cask at fining.
Dressing a fermentation Sprinkling materials on to the surface of fermenting wort.
Excess condition Carbon dioxide content of beer is above specification.
Fermentability The amount of extract which is fermentable in wort.
Forcing tests Methods of holding beer at elevated temperatures to encourage the growth of any micro-organisms present, They are used to assess biological stability of beer
Hot break (trub) Precipitate resulting from wort boiling.
Isinglass finings Colloidal substance which is added to beer to assist its clarification.
Indulgence Excise term relating to the granting of permission to perform legally operations which would otherwise be illegal.
Keystone Plug sealing the tapping bush of a cask.
Last runnings Last portion of extract from the mash tun.
Liquor Water used in the brewing process.
MYGP plates Agar plates containg Malt extract, Yeast extract, Glucose and Peptone.
Malt extract Material extracted from malt and usually concentrated by evaporation.
Pitching Inoculating wort with yeast to start the fermentation.
Pitching heat Temperature of the wort when yeast is pitched.
Pitching rate Quantity of yeast added per unit of wort.
Primary fermentation The first and principal fermentation.
Primings Sugar solution added to beer after primary fermentation.
Respiratory-deficient Mutants Spontaneously and commonly occurring yeast mutants unable to use oxidative pathways for generating metabolic energy. Such strains are unable to use non-fermentable carbon sources (e.g. glycerol and lactate) for growth and are usually affected also in their fermentation and/or sedimentation characteristics.
Rousing Vigorous agitation of the fermentation usually involving some form of circulation.
Saccharometer Instrument for determining the specific gravity of wort or beer.
Screenings Corns and other extraneous materials which pass through a sieve with a mesh size of 2·2 mm
Secondary fermentation Process in which beer continues to ferment and mature after cleansing.
Shive A bung, inserted in the bungbush or shiveport of a cask.
Skimming Removing yeast head from the top of the fermenter, particularly in collecting yeast for repitching.
Slack malt Malt which has picked up moisture following kiln-drying so that the final moisture content is more than 0·5% above specification.
Spile A wooden peg used to vent or release carbon dioxide from a cask. A porous spile permits slow escape of gas; a non-porous spile prevents gas diffusing through.
Stillage Structure which supports casks of beer in a horizontal position ready for dispense.
Sticking fermentation Fermentation which slows down abnormally or stops before the attenuation target is reached.
Stooping Tilting of a cask.
Tut A small plug in the shive.
Ullage In this document ullage refers to spillage or losses associated with dispense.
Venting The use of porous and non-porous spiles to control the condition of cask beer.
Viability of Yeast Percentage of the cells which are living.
Wild yeast Any yeast other than the strain selected for the primary fermentation. They may be genera other than Saccharomyces.
WLN Agar Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient agar – an agar medium containing the pH indicator bromocresol green.